How to pronounce Linux

Internet newsgroup participants have long debated the proper pronunciation of Linux. Because the name Linux was conferred by Linux kernel author Linus Torvalds, his pronunciation of the word should reign as standard as I see it. However, Linus is Finnish and his pronunciation of Linux is difficult for English speakers to approximate. Consequently, many variations in pronunciation have arisen. The most popular pronunciation sounds as though the word were spelled Linnucks, with the stress on the first syllable.

You can hear how Linus Torvalds pronounces Linux:

Andrew T. Baker - Demystifying Docker - PyCon 2015

How to pronounce Linux


To set home directory

usermod –d /home/user1/

To set root gid and groups for the user1

usermod –g 0 –G 0 user1

To change access rights for a directory

chmod 777 /var/www/directory

To remove package with configuration files

aptitude remove --purge package-name

To remove old configuration files

dpkg --purge package-name

To combine .rar files using unrar

unrar e -kb part01.rar


rarcrack p1r.part1.rar

Creating symbolic link (There is no “/” sign at the end)

ln -s /var/www/existing /var/www/newname

Burning an ISO image to CD-ROM

apt-get install cdrecord

cdrecord -scanbus
... snip ...

1,0,0 100) 'HDT72251' '6DLAT80 ' 'V43O' Disk

1,1,0 101) *

1,2,0 102) *

... snip ...

cdrecord -dev 1,0,0 /tmp/output.iso

Removing kernel

uname –a
dpkg --list 'linux-image*'
sudo aptitude remove linux-image-2.6.18-5-686

Sources List,

nano /etc/apt/sources.list

Trace a program (ex. pidgin)

strace -v -i -s 9999 $( which pidgin ) >| strace.log 2>&1

xattr (extended attributes)

Delete ‘Where From’ metadata from files

xattr /Path/To/File

You’ll get a key named To delete this key in the Terminal, run:

xattr -d /Path/To/File

Mount External HDD (NTFS)

Install ntfs-3g library

aptitude install ntfs-3g

Shows all the disk drives

fdisk -l

To make writable mount

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1 -t ntfs-3g -o rw,umask=0022,uid=cem,gid=cem

Mount NTFS partition

umask is a filter of permissions, so it works in the opposite way to chmod. Full permissions are equivalent to 777 (rwxrwxrwx). A umask of 0222 (-w–w–w-) leaves 555 (r-xr-xr-x).

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1 -t ntfs -r -o umask=0222,uid=cem,gid=cem

-rwxr-x— 1 cem cem 28096 Aug 24 1996 chkdsk.exe

umount /mnt/sda1/

To make writable mount

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1 -t ntfs-3g -o rw,umask=0022,uid=cem,gid=cem

Mount an ISO image

Under UNIX and Linux like oses a loop device (a pseudo-device) can make a file accessible as a block device. It is is often used for CD / DVD ISO images and floppy disc images. Mounting a file containing a filesystem via such a loop mount makes the files within that filesystem accessible. They appear in the mount point directory.

Open terminal and create a mount point:

sudo mkdir /home/user/iso

If your iso image is at /tmp/file.iso, type the following to mount it:

sudo mount -o loop /tmp/file.iso /home/user/iso

To unmount type the command:

sudo umount /home/user/iso

Accurate Platform Detection

shtool platform -v -F "%sc (%ac) %st (%at) %sp (%ap)"
cat /etc/*-release

Network Testing Basics

Install netkit-ping, traceroute, dnsutils, ipchains (for 2.2 kernel), iptables (for 2.4 kernel), and net-tools packages and:

ping           # check Internet connection
traceroute     # trace IP packets
ifconfig                  # check host config
route -n                  # check routing config
dig [] host.dom [{a|mx|any}] |less # check host.dom DNS records by for a {a|mx|any} record
ipchains -L -n |less      # check packet filter (2.2 kernel)
iptables -L -n |less      # check packet filter (2.4 kernel)
netstat -a                # find all open ports
netstat -l --inet         # find listening ports
netstat -ln --tcp         # find listening TCP ports (numeric)

How to format a hard drive in linux

To create partition on hard drive B

cfdisk /dev/sdb

Choose New, Primary and then Write and Quit

To format 1st partition on hard drive B

mkfs /dev/sdb1